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Gemstone Crystal System Density Hardness Refractive index Treatments
Emerald hexagonal 2.72 7.5-8.0 1.746-1.755 dying, fracture filling, oiling

Inclusions in Colombian Emerald
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Phase inclusions and liquid veils.

3- phase inclusion features a gas bubble and dolomite crystal with typical jagged outline seen in syngenetic inclusions

The lower 2-phase inclusion features a gas bubble in liquid, also with jagged outline.


Growth tubes, negative crystals and liquid veils
Hexagonal biotite crystal with yellowish remnants of oiling and liquid veils.
2-phase inclusions each containing rhombohedral dolomite. The jagged outline is typical for syngenetic primary origin of inclusions in Colombian emerald.
Liquid veil and thin jagged liquid veiling.


The following books are my recommendations for further study.
They are some of the best available.
If you would like a larger selection, please visit the Book Shop.

Gemstones: Symbols of Beauty and Power
by Eduard J. Gubelin, Franz-Zaver Erni

The Curious Lore of Precious Stones:

by George Frederick Kunz

Gemstone Buying Guide: A Guide to Buying

by Renee Newman

Gems: Their Sources, Descriptions and Identification...
by Robert Webster, Peter G. Read (Editor)

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